Cervicofacial actinomycosis pdf
Actinomycosis is a chronic infection caused by a gram-positive anaerobic bacteria from the species Actinomyces and causes a chronic colliquative inflammatory reaction known as actinomycotic granuloma, which is characterized macroscopically by suppuration, sinus tract formation, and purulent discharge containing yellowish sulfur granules. The removal of the infected bone, careful debridement of dental remains, and long-term intravenous and oral antibiotic therapy will be effective in the treatment of mandibular osteomyelitis caused by actinomyces. Diagnosis was confirmed on culture and histology of pus and debris obtained from surgical drainage. Cervicofacial actinomycosis is uncommon, but without proper treatment it causes extensive tissue destruction. However, presentation as an en-plaque lesion with bone involvement out of proportion to brain parenchyma is rare and needs to be acknowledged. If you log out, you will be required to enter your username and password the next time you visit. Rationale: Actinomycosis is a rare anaerobic, gram-positive bacterial infection caused by Actinomyces, which is part of the normal flora in the oral cavity and respiratory and female genitourinary tracts.The cervicofacial area is the most common site of involvement, and involvement of the central nervous system is rare. Comparison of fluorescent antibody technique and conventional staining methods in diagnosis of cervicofacial actinomycosis.
Cervicofacial actinomycosis is the most common form, accounting for about 50 % of all cases . We present here a case of primary actinomycosis of the parotid gland presenting with a parotid mass lesion with erosion of skull bones. The diagnosis often is overlooked because of this entity's ability to mimic other conditions. In the years 2000 to 2002 we diagnosed and treated three children with cervicofacial actinomycosis at the pediatric department at the Landeskrankenhaus Leoben/Eisenerz.
Although uncommon, it is important to include this disease in the differential diagnosis when a tumor-like mass is detected in the cervicofacial region. The importance of prompt bacteriological diagnosis and adequate treatment with surgical drainage and chemotherapy is stressed. a 50-year-old female patient presented at the Department of Oral surgery of the Medical University of Warsaw for extraction of the roots of the 36 tooth with gangrenous pulp. Based on the anatomic site of lesions four clinical forms of actinomycosis are recognized: (i) Cervicofacial - Most commonly involved is the cervicofacial area, where the disease is often a sequel to dental caries, periodontal disease, or injury to the oral mucosa, such as tooth extraction. Thoracic and abdominal actinomycoses also occur frequently, and pelvic actinomycosis is possible in women. Actinomycosis is a chronic suppurative infection primarily caused by anaerobic gram-positive filamentous bacteria, primarily of the genus Actinomyces. We report a patient with an actinomycosis-like pelvic process originating from a tubo-ovarian abscess 2 months after hysteroscopic removal of an IUD that was in situ for approximately 8 years.P. Introduction: Central nervous system (CNS) actinomycosis typically presents from the local spread of infection via the ear, sinus, or cervicofacial region, resulting most commonly in abscesses.
They are the causative agents of actinomycosis, a slowly progressing (indolent) infection with non-specific symptoms in its initial phase, and a clinical course of extensive tissue destruction if left untreated. Cervicofacial actinomycosis results when this organism infects the head and neck area. cervicofacial regions because the CNS lesions were distributed asymmetrically and were continuous with the right temporal bone. are considered rare pathogens in today's medicine, especially with thoracic vertebral involvement. However to the authors’ knowledge, actinomycosis of the post-cricoid region has not been previously reported. Cutaneous actinomycosis is a chronic disease that affects the deep subcutaneous tissue of the skin.
We present a case of subcutaneous actinomycosis, localized at the upper segment of the posterior neck space, with scalp involvement. We report a rare case of spinal actinomycosis with subcutaneous abscesses illustrated by magnetic resonance imaging and computed tomography findings. Actinomycosis is a rare and chronic bacterial infection caused by Actinomyces species. Actinomyces are part of normal upper respiratory, intestinal, and genitourinary flora.; Actinomyces israelii is the most common causative agent, usually mixed with Gram-positive cocci and anaerobes.; Classical presentation is a chronic, localized infiltrative process with abscess fistula formation and draining sinuses. However, it can also result from the direct extension of cervicofacial infections.
Cervicofacial actinomycosis is an uncommon indolent infection caused by Actinomyces spp that typically affects individuals with innate or adaptive immunodeficiencies. The most frequent site of human infection is the cervicofacial area, accounting for about 40 to 50% of cases. Actinomycosis is a chronic bacterial infection characterized by abscess formation, draining sinus tracts, fistulae, and tissue fibrosis .
Therefore the physician should have a high index of suspiscion.
Cervicofacial Actinomycosis infections are uncommon, and the diagnosis is often missed or delayed because of general unfamiliarity with the disease; so it is still poses a great diagnostic challenge, especially in atypical cases, because of its insidious course and non-specific symptoms. Actinomycosis may occur in the abdomen or lung, but the most common site is within the cervicofacial region. A typical lesion consists of a lung abscess filled with neutrophils and surrounded by dense fibrotic tissue. Actinomycosis is an uncommon infection characterized by a wide spectrum of clinical presentations, including abscess formation, fistulas and fibrosis, with potential to soft and hard tissues involvement in a variable course (1,6). actinomycosis can recur a few months or years after an apparent cure, antibiotic therapy should be prolonged in order to prevent the chance of recurrence9. A 48-year-old man with retrosternal chest pain and upper abdominal pain with propagation to the back, with clinical signs of nausea, dyspnea and dysphagia was referred to the Clinics of thoracic surgery. The sites of infection are classified as cervicofacial, thoracic and abdominopelvic and rarely the central nervous system.
The frequency of occurrence of actinomycosis according to the sites of potential involvement is shown in the Table (1–8). This infection typically occurs following oral surgery or in patients with poor dental hygiene. Cervicofacial actinomycosis should be included in the differential diagnosis of any soft tissue swelling in the head and neck region, particularly if malignancy or a granulomatous disease is suspected. Actinomycosis is a rare infection, and will typically present as chronic, slow growing abscesses that usually form along the lower jaw.This is called cervicofacial actinomycosis or “lumpy jaw.”This is a chronic, slowly progressing formation of granulomas that are non-painful.
Actinomycosis is often misdiagnosed because it can mimic other pathological conditions. In severe cases, they may penetrate the surrounding bone and muscle to the skin, where they break open and leak large amounts of pus actinomiccosis, which often contains characteristic granules sulfur granules filled with progeny bacteria. Cervicofacial actinomycosis It is the most frequent clinical form of actinomycosis and “lumpy jaw syndrome”, which is associated with odontogenic infection, the most common clinical manifestation representing approximately 60% of all reported cases [11-13, 33]. Insufficient recognition of the unilateral tonsillar hypertrophy caused by actinomycosis among otolaryngologists may be one of the possible reasons. Cervicofacial actinomycosis caused by the infection of Actinomyces israelii and usually oc curing in the oral cavity, proceeds to the chronic disease processes and is often insensitive to conventional therapy. The clinical manifestations are in three areas: cervical (50%), thoracic (17%) and abdominal (23%) (1, 2, 3).The most common is the Cervico-facial, in the shape of a fluctuating mass, with little pain and of progressive growth adjacent to the mandible (1, 2, 3, 4).
Actinomycosis is not found outside the body.2 Cervicofacial, thoracic,and abdominal actinomycosis are the three most common forms of the disease. The infection can involve every organ of the body, and pulmonary actinomycosis is the third most common type after cervicofacial and abdomino-pelvic forms. This disease may present as chronic debilitating illness with radiographic manifestation simulating lung tumor, pulmonary infiltrating lesion, or chronic suppuration.
The common sites of infection are cervicofacial, thoracic, abdominal, primary cutaneous and pelvic. IN the following fairly typical case of cervicofacial actinomycosis, unrecognized for almost five years, a question of the value of various diagnostic and therapeutic methods arises. common clinical forms of actinomycosis are cervicofacial (i.e., lumpy jaw), muscle spasms in the jaw or a “locked jaw, thoracic, and abdominal. The first of these manifestations is the most frequent, although fairly uncommon: a review of literature re-vealed 48 cases of cervicofacial actinomycosis re-ported over the last 25 years.
Although this disease can develop at various sites in the human body, the most common type is cervicofacial actinomycosis (1). CERVICOFACIAL ACTINOMYCOSIS This is the most common and recognized presentation of the disease. In the literature, patients who underwent surgery for actinomycosis mimicking malignant tumors have been reported.
Background:Actinomycosis israeli is a gram-positive non-acid-fast bacterium and is the most common causative agent of actinomycosis. Only one other case report reports on cerebral abscess with Actinomyces odontolyticus. Oral-cervicofacial actinomycosis is the localization found most often, presenting as a soft tissue swelling, an abscess, a mass lesion, or sometimes an ulcerative lesion. The lesion typically begins as a painful, indurated swelling one to several weeks after dental extraction or trauma to the mouth. Prognosis relates directly to early diagnosis and is most favorable in the cervicofacial form and progressively worse in the thoracic, abdominal, and generalized forms, especially if the central nervous system is involved. Infections of the oral and cervicofacial regions are the most commonly reported cases. Actinomycosis is one bacterial infection that is seen on biopsy with some frequency. Moreover, they should know that actinomycosis may mimic the process of malignancy at various anatomical locations.
Case presentation We present the case of a 75-year-old Caucasian woman with a 3-month history of night sweats, fever, chills, abdominal bloating, anorexia, weight-loss, and early satiety. Actinomycosis is caused by filamentous Gram positive anaerobic bacteria from the Actinomycetaceae family, and known as a rare cause of the infection at the eyeball. Cervicofacial Actinomycosis —Disease Fact Sheet Definition Actinomycosis is a suppurative and granulomatous anaerobic infectious disease, caused by Actinomyces israelii, that spreads into adjacent soft tissue without regard for tissue planes or lymphatic drainage; it may also be associated with a draining sinus tract.
Cervicofacial actinomycosis typically presents as a mass at the angle of the jaw (lumpy jaw) and is commonly associated with external draining ulcers, sinuses, ﬁstulae, and occasionally sulfur granules. A history of orofacial trauma, dental manipulations, or infections is often elicited from these patients. Cervicofacial actinomycosis is the most common form and comprises about 50% of all reported cases . Cervicofacial actinomycosis is the commonest type which accountedfor approximately 50% of the cases, followed by the thoracic and abdominal type with around 20% of the cases for both3. Actinomycosis is an indolent, slowly progressive infection caused by anaerobic or microaerophilic bacteria, primarily of the genus Actinomyces, that colonize the mouth, colon, and vagina. A firm, indurated mass, on or near the mandible with associated abscess formation or draining sinus tract, is a typical physical finding in this disease. Actinomyces species may form endospores, and, while individual bacteria are rod-shaped, Actinomyces colonies form fungus-like branched networks of hyphae.
The pathogenic mechanism underlying actinomycotic infiltration is unknown (5).
Only 10 cases have been reported in the medical literature between 1970 and 1999. Report of two cases involving major salivary glands, Australian Dental Journal" on DeepDyve, the largest online rental service for scholarly research with thousands of academic publications available at your fingertips. actinomycosis is that of its commonest form, the cervicofacial type, in which a middle-aged male patient presents with a large mass on the jaw, not too dissimilar to the lumpy disease originally described in cattle. The purpose of this article is to familiarize ra-diologists with the clinical and radiologic char-acteristics of actinomycosis.
The cervicofacial region, thorax, abdomen, retroperitoneal space and subcutaneous tissues are the most commonly affected areas. Characteristic risk factors are poor oral hygiene resulting in periodontal abscesses or dental decay; orofacial trauma; foreign bodies penetrating the mucosal barrier such as bone splinters, fish bones or spicules of grass or grain; and dental procedures. Cervicofacial actinomycosis may involve almost any tissue or structure surrounding the upper or lower mandible, Lerner PI.